1. Diagnosis

Kidney function can be assessed through blood and urinalysis. Certain markers, such as blood creatinine levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR, ml/min), provide essential criteria to define and distinguish the 5 stages of CKD.

According to the residual kidney function, measured by GFR, the disorder is classified into five stages (I-V). The advanced stages, or end stage renal disease (ESRD) require the start of renal replacement therapy (RRT). RRT consists of dialysis therapy and/or kidney transplantation. Together with the level of persistent albuminuria, prognosis of CKD can be made (table). 

KDIGO. Clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. ISN, 2013; 3(1). 


In CKD patients the risk for cardiovascular mortality or a cardiovascular event is significantly increased compared to the general population.


  1. Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Sarnak MJ. Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9:16-23.
  2. Schiffrin EL, Lipman ML, Mann JF. Chronic kidney disease: effects on the cardiovascular system. Circulation 2007: 116:85-97.